Abstract : To identify approaches to school-based violence prevention that are most promising and those that may not be effective, a review of the literature was conducted. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted with 15 experts on topics related to school-based violence prevention. Nine critical ingredients of promising approaches to violence prevention were identified. Specifically, the approaches are comprehensive and multifaceted; begin in the primary grades and are reinforced across grade level; are developmentally tailored: and cover appropriate content area. Appropriate content areas include information; anger management; social perspective taking; decision making and social problem solving; peer negotiation and conflict management; social resistance skills; active listening and effective communication; and material on prejudice, sexism, racism and male-female relationship. In addition, promising programs use interactive teaching techniques, are culturally sensitive, and provide teacher training. They promote a positive school climate and foster norms against violence. Six violence prevention activities that appear not to be effective are also discussed. The authors conclude with a discussion of the need for more rigorous evaluation of violence prevention programs.