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A Strategy Map for Results-based Budgeting: Moving from Theory to Practice by Mark Friedman (September 1996)

This paper defines results, indicators, and performance measures and offers a framework for choosing them. It discusses lessons from state, local, and private initiatives to define, measure, and achieve results. And it suggests how to build political and community support, how to reallocate resources and tie them to results, how to integrate results-based budgeting into an existing budget process, and how to avoid common pitfalls. It serves as a framework for the Turning the Curve series of papers and toolkits, including A Guide to Results and Indicators, and A Guide to Developing and Using Performance Measures.

A Guide to Selecting Results and Indicators: Implementing Results-based Budgeting by Atelia Melaville (May 1997)

This paper draws on the experiences of several states, cities, and counties to help guide others through the tasks of identifying results and measurable indicators and tying them to an established planning, budgeting, and management system. It lays out key characteristics of an effective results and indicators list, the important steps in developing this list, and the potential problems that a jurisdiction may face in establishing results and indicators and collecting the data to measure them.

A Guide to Developing and Using Performance Measures in Results-based Budgeting by Mark Friedman (May 1997)

This paper is intended as a user-friendly guide for taking steps to hold agencies and programs accountable for their performance by meeting reasonable targets while maintaining a focus on overall desired results. It is a guide to creating performance accountability within a results framework. It presents characteristics of an effective performance measurement system, examples of state and local performance measurement systems, and a "four-quadrant approach" for developing performance measures that are useful, quantifiable, and that fit into a more broad performance measurement framework.